Fact sheet on domestic violence against men in India

16 days of activism against feminist terrorism against men

Domestic Violence Data:

Husband truned into a free ATMSave Family Foundation and My Nation Foundation conducted an online survey between April 2005 and March 2006 and found that out of 100,000 men surveyed during that one year, 98% of men faced severe domestic violence at the hands of their wives and in-laws in the form verbal, physical, emotional, mental and financial abuse.

  1. Economic violence was the commonest, faced by 32.8% of participants.
  2. Physical Violence was the closest second at 25.2%.
  3. Emotional Violence followed suit at 22.2%.
  4. While sexual violence contended fourth with 17.7%.
  5. Verbal abuse was a problem faced by all men in the above categories

The organizations that conducted the survey were also confronted with the gruesome reality that most abused men suffer in silence for fear of being discredited or ridiculed by the society. This resulted in a lot of psychological, sometimes irreparable, trauma to the abused male.

Further investigation into the problem revealed that many such men who are unable to withstand domestic abuse, withdraw from the society, fell prey to addictions or in extreme cases end their own lives.

Suicide Data of men:

The total number of suicides by married men compared to married women:

Year Married Men Married Women
2005 52,583 28,188
2006 55,452 29,869
2007 57,593 30,064

According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), the number of suicides in the country has increased by 40% during the decade 1996 – 2006. While 26.1 % of the total number of suicides is attributed to domestic violence, 16.6% of the suicides are due to causes unknown.
Taking these percentages into account, an estimated

  • 11,882 married men committed suicide in 1996 due to domestic violence;
  • 16,635 married men committed suicide in 2006 due to domestic violence;
  • 14258 married men (on average) commit suicide due to domestic violence every year, and
  • 156, 843 married men have ended their lives due to domestic violence between the years 1996 – 2007.

In the category comprising of individuals with a living spouse (married and/or separated), the number of suicides is always higher for males.

In other categories, the number of suicides is either equal to that of women or even slightly lesser for males (see figure below), indicating that intimate partner violence a major reason for Indian men committing suicide.

Men victim status - suicides

Lack of social support or legal protection for men:

Domestic violence against men, albeit a universal problem, is completely ignored by the society and the Government.

There are no laws to protect men from any form of domestic abuse.

On the other hand, legal protections given to women have been designed to serve as weapons for legal harassment of men.

The reason for the growing apathy and hatred against men in the society is the spread of radical feminist thinking in every sphere of public life, including the drafting of policies and laws.

20 thoughts on “Fact sheet on domestic violence against men in India”

  1. Dear Sir,

    I am very sorry to disturb you to be unprofessional to discuss with you, but I need your help urgently as I am in big trouble. I see your news channel regularly and I like too much your news channel as all the Aaj Tak media professionals usually help all the Indian citizens. Please help me and guide me to solve my family issues as given below because it is a matter of life & death, I am a sincere, hard-working & honest Indian citizen & employee of HCL. I hope from the media that Media will help me to solve my very serious & tragic family problems which I & my family was unable to solve it by my own. Please help me to solve my family issues as a media professionals which I have described in the email to Mr. Vinay k. Singh / Mr. Vinod Kumar (Top Executives of M/s Thomson Digital, NSEZ Noida) as shown below. I need your help as my life and career is in danger, please save my life & career. Please suggest or guide me how can I solve my family issues and what type of legal actions should I take. I am a husband of Mrs. Shalini Srivastava (Emp. ID: 57196), Group Leader C.E employed at Thomson Digital, NEPZ, Noida. I am very sorry to disturb you to be unprofessional to discuss with you, but the problem is very serious & tragic and it is a matter of life & death for me. I request you please help me to resolve my family issue as my family came to the end. Please save my life and career as my life is in danger due to verbal threatening of my wife in phone. I have 4 year old child (whose life also is in danger with my wife) residing with my wife at her parents’s home, it is the matter of the future of my child as Shalini is spoiling the future of my child due to her arrogant, selfish, shameless & dishonest nature. Some peoples of Shalini’s office said to me that Shalini is a loose character lady who wants to spoil her husband’s career and life, she is making relations from any other persons, she also gave some threatening calls to me from another person. Previously, I called to her manager Mr. Ashok regarding my family issue, he was also unable to make her understand and said to me that shalini is an arrogant or may be a loose character lady, I can’t do anything against her, she will spoil my career as well as my life, so it is better to leave shalini alone to go her into the hell. But my believes (or Trust) on my wife Shalini is that there is a problem of clashing of ego’s only not any else that shalini couldn’t able to understand how can the clashing of ego’s be avoided and how can a couple may live peaceful professional & lovable life with the satisfaction of husband, parents and other relatives. Sir, please guide me what will I do when my wife Shalini and a daughter-in-law of highly educated person Prof.(Dr.) D. S. Srivastava, HOD-A.M.U, & former Vice President of B.A.R.C (who is now retired and also working with an private University as Dean of Faculty and serve his life alone & independently without disturbing others), has run away from house due to her illegal approach and arrogance and she is spoiling my family life. Several times I have tried to make her understand that husband and wife are the two wheels of a motor bike, we should cooperate with each other with love, affection & trust always, life alone with spouse will become hell. I can’t live without my wife as I am a mother deprived person because I love my wife Shalini too much & I am alone in life, I am too possessive towards my wife Shalini because I love my wife Shalini too much, as I am purchasing a flat in Noida for my wife & children, I have also purchased a Santro Car for my wife & children, but only one thing that I want from my wife that she should understand my lovable feelings and sentiments, she must realize/believe in the concept that independent family life is a very good life with love, affection & trust between husband & wife without any dependency of any other persons (say parents, relatives etc,) so that we could able to avoid clashing of ego’s problems in the family life from others because clashing of ego problems will destroy every things, career, life etc., all the things will destroy due to clashing of ego’s, so it is necessary for my wife shalini that she should be able to understand that life, career, love-affection & trust between husband & wife and self ego are the very important things to every persons, hence she should avoid the clashing of ego’s between person to person and she should be able to understand how to become a well understanding wife by spreading love, affection & trust towards husband. Shalini should be honest in her approach because honesty is the basic thing of life and career. Shalini is not honest she always tell lie about everybody and I always said truth with my honesty which my Shalini get so arrogant when she heard my speaks:-
    Actually, there are following issues in our family which I am explaining briefly and I and I am also enclosing my article (which I gave to my wife Shalini to make her understand the concepts of married life) in a mail enclosed in attachment :
    1) Child Issue:- As we both husband – wife are working, my time schedule is 8:30 AM to 9:00 PM, and my wife Shalini’s time schedule is 7:30 AM to 6 :00 PM to reach at home at Noida. My child is 4 year old, I have suggested that there is only solution to resolve the issue is the day boarding system to our child, that is, in the morning shift, I will take care to my child and leave the child to the school while in the evening shift, my wife Shalini will take care to our child from the day boarding, after her office timings. If anything I couldn’t able to do, I will learn very soon to do the work in a correct way. We should live the life independently with love, affection & trust with each other with fully devoted to each other and take care to our child sincerely & honestly. But my wife puts lots of allegations on me I am not responsible, and was put lots of absurd allegations to my family say my father, & my elder brother (who is working in Dubai as a Associate General Manger). she said that only her mother can take care to our child in her absence and nobody else. The problem is that shalini’s mother is always criticizing to me and my family due to the ego & jealousy problem as the level of my family is much higher than her family and her father is an hand-packed person, say shalini’s parents are too much dominating, selfish & shameless in nature. To avoid such issues, to live peaceful life, I gave some basic principle of married life & I also got approval from the marriage councilors regarding my article ‘Basic concept to maintain Life’, and I said to her that independent life is a very good life, Shalini should be honest in her approach, we can help her parents in their needs but we should not get help from shalini’s parents so that they could not get any reason to dominate on anybody to destroy the self ego of a person as they were always created issues & disturbances in our family life. Initially when my child was born, my father gave Rs. 2000/- pm to the shalini’s parents to take care to my child for one year, on their demand. Now, I am requesting them to keep my wife & child alone, they are not leaving my wife & child alone with me and always put criticism & allegations, sometimes on me and some time on my father due to jealousy & negative energy. They spoiling my family life as well as my career by emotional blackmailing to my wife Shalini by putting my child in an arrow due to their shameless & selfish approach. Shalini’s parents always being in touch with my wife Shalini by taking child issue and always making disturbances by creating issues, absurd & shameless allegations in our family life. Shalini’s parents are lower category parents having jealous type of feelings in their minds.
    2) Relationship issue:- She did not want to adopt / mixing up in the relations other than her parental side, she said to me that all the relations from my side are selfish in nature, but the facts is that relations from my side are always being sincere, hardworking and an educated & professional persons as my father is an highly educated person Prof.(Dr.) D. S. Srivastava, HOD, & former Vice President of B.A.R.C (who is now retired and also working with an private University as Dean of Faculty and serve his life alone & independently without disturbing others) and my brother is a Civil engineer working in Dubai in an MNC as AGM (Civil), previously he was working in Delhi Metro Projects., they all were tried to taught her that she should be honest in her approach, she should not be so arrogant, and she has to learn the concepts of life, but all our efforts were become worth as she couldn’t able to understand the true facts, and wants to spoil my life and career. Shalini’s parents always being in touch with my wife Shalini by taking child issue and always making disturbances by creating various dominating shameless issues, absurd & shameless allegations in our family life.
    3) Financial Issue:- She always puts allegations on me that I always think about money-money but I have planned to be well settled and established in Noida with our own efforts honestly without any dependency of any other person as I am very egoistic person, by purchasing a flat in a good location in Noida and I am always think to be well furnished with a good Luxurious level in life. So in order to achieve that much level in life, I always taught my wife to be honest, professionally sincere & well understanding to live as a independent professional married wife with proper love, affection and trust with each other in order to provide a honest satisfaction to each other to be well devoted on each other. But she refused to manage the married life in such a way without involving her parents into our married life. So, my father (after understanding the arrogant, selfish, dominating and shameless nature of my wife Shalini and her parents) has designed a feasible financial system to run our family in a minimum compatible manner with such an arrogant and dishonest wife & daughter-in-law Shalini is that we both husband & wife should prepare the approximate budget of the family (say 20000/- or 30000/- or whatever it will be) per month including all the expenses of husband, wife and of child etc, and divide the family budget in two parts and then deposited these amount from our salary accounts in one joint account in order to serve the family with love, affection and trust. But shalini’s parents always be in touch all the times and put the allegations on me that I and my parental side are most selfish who are always think about money-money as Shalini’s parents always being in touch with my wife Shalini by taking money issue and always making disturbances by creating various dominating shameless issues, absurd & shameless allegations in our family life. Only Gods knows that all the allegations are wrong which Shalini and her shameless & selfish parents puts on me. My wife shalini at last has broken such financial system of our family in the middle in the impression of her selfish & shameless parents by involving her parents into our family.

    Please solve my family issues at the earliest by taking necessary actions for my wife Shalini to make her understand the basic principle of married life as it is the matter of life & death so that she could able to remove all the confusions in her mind and follow sincerely the Basic principles of married life, and lead the life professionally & as a sincere wife. and if you want to consult with my wife, her father, or my father, so, the cell nos. of my wife Shalini is 9810958446, cell no. of her father is- 9818211363, & the cell of my father – Prof.(Dr.) D.S.Srivastava is 09358251572, 0571-3293441.

    1. Hi,
      Pankaj,

      Shalini cannot be lived alone without as she is culprit lady, a person whose name is anand also emailed me and to my office about the dishonest nature of Shalini Srivastava a daughter of shameless & selfish parents who are a dalla type peron of their daughters.

      Ashok

    2. Dear Sir,

      Please remove my article from the website as soon as possible,

      Thanks,

      Pankaj Srivastava

  2. Shalini’s parents Mr. & Mrs. Sachchdanand Srivastava are the ultimate dalal type persons of their daughter Shalini Srivastava, who inspired Mrs. Shalini Srivastava a to become a loose charecter lady and to earn more & more money from selling her inner body parts to every male in her office.

    Regards,

    Ashok & Shashi Sheker.

  3. using the daughter as a tool to harass the man and extort him. Yet the Indian Government is doing nothing to protect men from rampant Domestic Violence.

    Domestic violence against men, albeit a universal problem, is completely ignored by the society and the Government.
    There are no laws to protect men from any form of domestic abuse.
    On the other hand, legal protections given to women have been designed to serve as weapons for legal harassment of men.
    The reason for the growing apathy and hatred against men in the society is the spread of radical feminist thinking in every sphere of public life, including the drafting of policies and laws.

    Help me, Help the Needy, God Help those who help others.

    My father on discussion with my wife and my younger brother Rizwan took me to Psycatrist at Latur to Prove that I am Mad. But I told the Doctor that I was Forced and I respect the words of my father and I came here as a huming being to you but as a patient to my father.
    I am ok. I recited the whole story to him. He too agreed to me and told my father that what he has not thought that thing happened to him from the source(Wife) which he haven’t thought of it.

    For the sake of Humanity Help me.
    For the sake of God Help me.
    From 2004 till this date I am badly torchered by her and her relatives.

    My father doesn’t love me from the age of 10.
    I had been working in Mumbai at the age of 20yr as a Customer Support Engineer for Akruti Font at Aces technologies, Crawford Market, Mumbai.
    I am sending my updated CV and my Photo (4 months back).
    When the incident of beating happened with me. I went in Jamaat(Where we people used to remain in mosque, never goes out and pray 5 times prayer and do homework for the sake of benefit for all the creatures(18000) we perform duaa. I came from Jammat on 6.7.2010.
    Now I am in beard.

    Help me, Help Me, Help Me.
    If they give me my money back or if they register my name in Registry, it’s ok.
    My main aim to open the fraud they did and to let them realize their mistakes in front of all the people so that they will not repeat such things in future.
    Better you do Better you die.

    I am ready for the punishment also if I am 1% wrong.
    But I need this matter to be opened and let them feel their guity/crime they did in front of all others, so that they would be shameful for what they did.
    But my observation is that they are very much cruel and greedy persons.
    I don’t have any documents as a proof that’s why I didn’t go to Court. I know that Court will ask. They have my all the documents (Bank Proof), Withdrawl amount of 40000 at 2004 from Osmanabad.
    and Esaarpavti by her name first and my name later.(Original one).
    I had given the original to her father in the year 2007 and he told that Instead of Original documents He will give me 50000/- Rs.
    But he didn’t.
    When I and my wife went to see and inquire about the Plot I found that It has been registered or someone in the owner.
    Since 2007 I am telling my wife to do registry or call me for the signature for the registry of Plot. But none paid any heed.
    After a long quareel from 2004 onwards she gave the payment when i was not there(Preplanned) to my father, and there she signed the bond in Nov. 1st 2009. From that day onwards I am just asking her to show for what she signed. I didn’t ask for the money for the plot (It’s 3 lacs in today’s date with registry), I asked for her to show what’s written in the bond. she is refusing till this date.

  4. please let us know about the anti violence movement favouring man in gujrat ahmedabad
    please let us know the contact number through e mail

  5. respected sir
    i am rajendra i read in newspaper and search on internet i read and i trust you now
    sir i want to say you something as elder brother
    in my family there only 4 people (my english is not so correct so please try en understand please)
    my mother is working in state government on good position she really sacrifices whole life for me
    she does’nt have without me she’s age is now 57 actually she worked from age of (her) 7 so that she
    is too tired. she hope that if she married his son (me rajendra) in her relationship then she never get any problem’s that why my mother arranged a marriage in her relationship but when we are come in nasik for service and something earning (my wife forcefully recommend that we (me my son and my wife) have to go to nasik) my mother has some yr service is left so that why she is not come with us.
    but when my mother come to our home my wife behavior was suddenly change with her and with family she does’t accepts that my mother have to come in my family my mother me so many times observe that she is try to insult my mother and so many time she did it but my mother emotionally leave it cause she love with my son (natu vir). but in last three years there is so many things is happend in my life : 1st my wife want to get service as teacher in any school but we dont have a lot of money like 12-13 lacks which they required. 2nd things my mother have some property a basic house it has cost approx 12-13 lacks which she required for service oriented all these things she (my wife) warned me that she will suicide with my child and pre planningly arrest to you and your mother else i will mix a poison in meal it means all problems was solve but your mother will go arrested (all situation are related with my mother cause she have retirement at 2012 and she gets so much amount which my wife required ) but sir my wife has no such brain how to black mail her husband i think my wife’s parents is involve in all these things
    when i said to her that i will slam to you, then she was told me “if you are true male slam to me and then i will teach you a lesson which you never never forget in your whole life i know the rule ” so your can understand if one slam should be a cause of lesson i never hit a slam in last six years i never abuse to her parents but she always abuse to my mother in front of my mother when last time my mother came to my house she rises her voices and she abuse to my mother and said that you never have to come when i go with my mother my mother says this should be are last meeting it should possible i will be no more but she say me that be take care of vir sir my mother is in very critical mental stage i love my mother toooo much but i cant do with her due to my wife behavior from the last three months my wife never ask me about my mother even about her health my wife things that she is right side
    please send me a legal right of my mother and how to save my mother my son and myself from my wife and her parents
    send me a legal help on naavaahaacaaaaradanaeajar2011@gmail.com
    your rajendra chavan

  6. govt deside & show the family membar rights & duity as per pati patni [husband & wife] mothar fathar son doughtar son in low doughtar in low as base custam in indian religance for family relif family membars requriment
    in indian base young jents & ledy acept wedding life both are family requriment expection . this sistam in runnig culcture right or rong disade by govt.

  7. Women are equally good and evil as men.
    We Indians, especially Hindus, deserve a BIG BLAME for constantly saying,
    ‘WE WORSHIP WOMEN! WE WORSHIP WOMEN!’.
    WHY? Yes, by all means, respect your mother.
    Respect your wife, respect your kids and elders.
    BUT GET RID OF THIS STUPID IDEA OF WORSHIPPING WOMEN.

    Women can commit every single crime a man can.
    Moreover, it is psychologically proven that women don’t entirely understand
    the concept of justice and fairplay in the sense, men practice it.
    This has to do with the evolution of different genders over thousands of years.
    It also has to do with the way boys learn to play games and fights …
    and understand that winning or losing is a one time event.
    It is not worth holding a grudge against the winner or the loser.
    In fact, a friend today can fall out and become a foe.
    Also, an opponent today can become the best friend tomorrow!
    It is not necessarily the mindset that women possess.

    There is great truth to the fickle nature of women.
    So, why then are we crazily singing ‘WE WORSHIP WOMEN! WE WORSHIP WOMEN!’.
    SHE IS OUT TO MAKE LIFE MISERABLE FOR YOU,
    AND YOU STILL WORSHIP HER?
    HOW STUPID OF YOU! BREAK THIS HABIT. AND EDUCATE YOUR FRIENDS ALSO.

  8. This is one heck of a fake article. I mean seriously, what kind of men are you? First of all, society subjugates women to an extent where they have no identity anymore, and then there’s this stupid article of violence against men? I have seen women who have been oppressed by men in India. Indian men in most cases think that they have a right to oppress because they are the ‘stronger sex’.

    I agree that in some cases women do make it difficult for men as well, but figures and common sense prove that women are the bigger sufferers when it comes to domestic abuse. This is completely hogwash. There’s no truth in it.

    And more men commit suicide because they are emotionally weaker than women. A woman would think a thousand times before she does something rash like that – regardless of how hellish her life is.

    Male chauvinism is a very very annoying thing.

    1. if women are sufferer from the man’s hand ,why dont they leave them(divorce them) and live in peace instead of running to police stations ,courts and NGOs. If they are so powerful psychologically then why they dont use it to earn money instead of demanding from man even a divorced man even a man she does not live with.
      You should think before saying any body stories a ‘fake’.
      “The best solution is if they cant live in peace together let both live in peace separately.”

  9. Dear Sirs,
    Please note that CALLING WIVES NAME IS ONE VIOLENCE ACT COMES UNDER
    D V ACT 2005 : UNDER SECTION 3 OF D V ACT 2005 AS FOLLOWS :
    3. Definition of domestic violence.-For the purposes of this Act, any act, omission or
    commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it –

    (a) { harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, ]
    verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse;
    (iii) “verbal and emotional abuse” includes-
    (a) insults, ridicule, humiliation, name calling and insults or ridicule specially with regard to not having a child or a male child; and
    (b) repeated threats to cause physical pain to any person in whom the aggrieved person is interested.

    HERE NAME CALLING THE WIVES BY THEIR HUSBAND OR OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS & RELATIVES OF HUSBANDS ARE CONSIDERED AS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .

    MAIN POINTS : EVEN OWN HUSBANDS ARE CALLING THEIR WIVES ARE CONSIDERED AS THE SEVERE & SERIOUS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE THEN :
    1. The Petitioners (Wives) Parents are calling them with their names, The petitioners brothers/sisters and other relatives are calling them with their names
    2. The Petitioners Friends are calling them with their Names
    3. If the Petitioners are working then their Colleagues are Calling them with their Names, Their Officers, Managers and Zonal Managers, Regional Managers and Directors are all calling then with their Their Names
    4. The Petitioners filing Complaints to the Police Stations where Polices, Sub Inspectors, Inspectors are calling them with their names
    4. Finally The Petitioners are filing Petitions in the Family Courts and there for every Hearing Dates Their Court Clerks are Calling them with Their Names on every occasions and sometime 3 times They Used call even without Ms. or Mrs.
    ***ONCE A MARRIED HUSBANDS WHO ARE THE FAMILY PARTNERS ARE ALSO RESTRICTED TO CALL THEIR WIVES WITH NAME CALLING AND PUNISHABLE UNDER SECTION 3 OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ACT 2005 THEN DEFINITELY THE ABOVE SAID ALL FOUR CATEGORY PEOPLE ARE ALSO INVOLVING THE SAME AND AFTER ALL SOME OF THEM ARE OUTSIDERS AND NOTHING CONCERNED WITH THE RESPECTIVE WIVES****
    So the above said Category People are liable to questionable or punishable under Domestic violence Act Under Section 3 .
    Please confirm with Our Prime Minister, Union Law Minister, Women Welfare Minister, AICC President, BJP President, The President of Communist Party, and all other Political Party Presidents , and All Members of Parliament who voted for this D V Act 2005 .
    The Law Should be EQUAL TO ALL and there should not be ANY PARTIALITY and so
    WHAT IS THE CLARIFICATION FOR THIS PARTIALITY? Let Them Explain.
    Let Us Consider and Assume Domestic Violence Act is Legal for Arguments Sake but also the above said categories should not call the WIVES by NAME CALLING and they should also questionable and Punishable since The Wives Own Husbands & Relatives are already Restricted by D V Act 2005.
    Mahakavi Bharathiyar says ; PEIYGAL AACHI SEITHAL !!!
    PINAM THINNUM SASTHRANGAL
    and it means : “IF GHOSTS or DEVILS ARE RULING ONE COUNTRY THEN
    THEY WOULD TRY TO EAT HUMANITY AND LAWS”

  10. This is a elaborated one, please spare my post. I am a software professional in the USA
    Whenever there is a small arguement at our house, my wife threans me that she would call police/put a case against me for domestic voilence. This has been happening for a while. A few minutes ago, she threw a sharp object (scissor) thrice and i was able to escape everytime, thanks to my flexibility. when she comes to me furiously like that, sometimes I have to hold/stop her for (my) self protection and when I touch her once for my own safety, she threatens me with the domestice violence act. This is just one way of threatening me.
    With the Indian(from Asia) background, I can’t go out and publicly say that she is threatening me by screaming out unnecessarily(she tries the attention from neighbours). she in fact beats me sometimes and say if I touch her she will do something to herself and file a compliant. Recently she started threatening/blackmailing me that she would tell my parents about the spats we have (she wants to expose them as bigger issues) and also scares me that when she goes to India she will file a 498 (indian domestic violence section) against them. My parents already had this kind of problem with my brother’s wife in India and they were all cleared by the local court and the other party cancelled their case against my parents agreeing that they did a mistake. My parents and myself (my borther’s issue happened before my marriage) went through real tough times during that period. My wife knows this and she threatens me she would give me a more horrible time to me and my parents.
    Last but not least, she creates pictures/photos of her with some bruises/skin allergic reactions(whatever might be the cause; we recently had some pet/dog flees/bugs infested into our apartment – her skin is sensitive) and tells me that she would use them as eveidence to prove that I attacked her.
    I am perplexed. This kind of behavior is causing me some problems. I feel like i have to see an attorney and before that i may have to see a Doctor for the stress one.
    Do you have any suggestions ? i want to give some more time to this relationship…

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